Closing is no less intertextual, both in its assurances of the lovers’ perfect union and durante the insistence on textual boundaries: Sires et rois levante apieles Et ele apielee roine
and London, 1989), pp. 20–50 (‘Fergus: the Courtois Vilain’); D. D. R. L. Per. Arrathoon (Rochester, MI, 1984), pp. 47–81, and ‘The Craft of Fergus: Supplementary Notes’, French Studies Bulletin 25 (1987–88), 1–5 (on Guillaume’s debt puro the Perceval Continuations). It is astonishing that it receives so little mention, as far as one can tell sopra the absence of an index, in The Legacy of Chretien de Troyes, addirittura. N. J. Lacy et al., 2 vols. (Amsterdam, ). There is a reference sopra I, 145. Marquardt supporto cougar life, Der Einfluss Kristians von Troyes auf den Roman ‘Fergus’ des Guillaume Le Clerc (Gottingen, 1906). The nearest parallel is Huon de Mery’s Tournoiement Antechrist. Here too the essential borrowings from Chretien had been recognized in an early German dissertation (by Max Grebel, Leipzig, 1883), but have only quite recently been examined for the artistry with which they have been recycled: see K. Busby, ‘Plagiarism and Poetry per the Tournoiement Antechrist of Huon de Mery’, Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 84 (1983), 505–21. For the distinction of the terms parody, pastiche and burlesque, which Owen tends esatto use interchangeably, see T. Hunt, ‘La Parodie medievale: le cas d’Aucassin et Nicolette’, Romania 100 (1979), 341–81 (pp. 347–50). There are references sopra Chretien onesto per Scottish king Aguisel (Erec line 1966), Carduel (Erec line 5724, Yvain line 7, Perceval lines 330 and 797), Cototatre (Perceval line 3613 ? Firth of Forth), Danebroc (Erec lines 2127 and 2133 ? Edinburgh), Scotland (Erec lines 1966, 5223 and 6638; Cliges lines 1473 and 2386), Galloway (Perceval lines 6522, 8301 and 8560; Erec lines 6089 and 6821), Orcanie (Perceval lines 8741, 8941, 8995 and 9023). See R. L. Graeme Ritchie, Chretien de Troyes and Scotland, The Zaharoff Lecture for 1952 (Oxford, 1952).
This was illustrated, albeit rather atomistically, by one of the first modern publications on Fergus, W
And yet, although Fergus is often approached as a roman d’apprentissage with per piccolo problema-Perceval as hero21 – Marquardt already showed there were more debts preciso the Perceval than esatto any other of Chretien’s romances – the context of the whole rete informatica is unmistakably inscribed durante the cadre of Yvain, the paradigm of medieval romance which seems puro have been ever present durante Guillaume’s mind. The pastiche begins with the details of the vestito en scene. The opening incident of Yvain takes place ‘apres mengier, par mi les sales’ (line 8) echoed per ‘Granoturco es sales se sejornoient/ Apres mangier . . .’ (Fergus lines 19–20), but whereas mediante Chretien the guests talk together of ‘recent happenings’ (nouveles, line 12) and love (amours, line 13), and then Calogrenant begins to relate an adventure notable for being sicuro his discredit, Fergus isolates two members of the courtaud, Gauvain and Yvain, compares them loftily with Achilles and Patroclus, and then with calculated bathos reveals that they talk merely ‘d’unes et d’autres’ (line 33: ‘of this and that’) and ‘disoit cascuns son voloir’ (line 37: ‘each said whatever he pleased’), thus trivializing the theme of courtaud conciliabule. Per signal inversion of the source occurs when the two friends are interrupted by the unexpected arrival of the king (‘Li rois se laisse entr’els caoir’, line 38), whereas durante Yvain it is the queen who interrupts (‘Se ex laissie entr’eus queoir’, line 66; Arthur is asleep), the interruption causing Gauvain and Calogrenant respectively sicuro spring puro their feet (‘Sinon levante errant sailli en pies’, Fergus line 41; ‘Sali en pies contre li sus’, Yvain line 68). Arthur is far from drowsy, but bored and bent on action: ‘je vel orendroit errer./ Li sejorners pas ne me plest:/ Je vel cachier en la forest’ (Fergus lines 46–48: ‘I’ve per mind puro set out straight away! Loafing around is not esatto my taste: I wish preciso go hunting durante the forest’). The audience is thus invited sicuro appreciate the reworking of verso celebrated romance opening. Cil [l’]aimme com s’amie fermo Et ele lui comme ami sensitive. Guillaumes li clers trait a fine De sa matere et de sa trove. Car en nule terre ne trove Nul homme qua tant ait vescu Del chevalier au biel escu Plus en incessamment conter l’en sace. Ici met la bonne et l’estace; Ici oriente la fins del roumans. Grans joie viegne as escoutans. (lines 7000–12)22